Ancient Egypt 39,000 BCE Blog/Book Review
The modern assumption is that the Egyptians of the 2nd millennium BCE had the skill level to move large quantities of stone, some over a ton, up to 500 miles away to construct the temples and pyramids. No other civilization has been known to reproduce this and even today with modern technology it would be extremely difficult and very expensive. But we are to believe that a civilization just a few hundred years from the Stone Age was able to accomplish this with copper chisels and stone hammers.
If the human species were to disappear, civil engineering and geology experts predict buildings would crumble within a few hundred years without proper up keeping. After a thousand years cities of steel and concrete would be perceived to have never existed. Only objects from the hardest rocks or thickest concrete would survive. Hoover Dam would be expected to last for 10,000 years and after that only the solid granite faces of Mount Rushmore would stand. In this scenario once a new civilization emerges they probably wouldn’t know that any advanced cultures preceded them.
Background of the Egyptians…
Egypt is a civilization with many monuments craved out of granite. Granite is the hardest rock there is. Though the pyramids are just limestone blocks today they use to stand, two of pink granite and one of white limestone.
In the “3000” year history of Egypt, two main types of granite boxes were made. 1. Coffins with inscribed hieroglyphs perfectly squared with curve lids. 2. No inscriptions, some crude. Type 1’s level of workmanship appears to have been machine made, not of hand tools. The differences are apparent, especially when it comes down to workmanship between the two types. There is also a type 3 found only at Sakkara, underground. The tunnel is a scared tomb for the Apis Bull. Inside there are 24 eighty ton granite boxes. The boxes are now mostly empty, except for a few with the remains of Apis Bulls. They too, much like the first type, are of a high workmanship. Expert machinists have measured the square edges to 5/32 of an inch, a very tight corner for even modern day computerized standards. They flatness of the lids are accurate to 0.0002 inches.
Through the 3 types there is a noticeable difference in quality between them all. There are three scenarios that could explain the differences:
1. The lesser quality boxes are the work of amateurs replicating professional work.
2. They show the progression of workmanship ship over thousands of years.
3. It is the work of two entirely different civilizations.
Whatever the case, the academic explanation is that it is the work of two different periods of the same civilization. With the granite boxes being older, that would mean the skill level of Egyptians declined drastically over time for no apparent reason. Also according to Egyptologist all of this Egyptian work was done by hand with copper chisels, wooden mallets and stone hammers.
One pink granite box at Abu Sir’s shows what appears to be a workmen’s mistake. A rounded gouge is visible where the square shoulder meets the curved part of the lid. In modern times an error like this would be categorized as someone who mistakenly pressed down too hard for too long with whatever machine they were using. It’s illogical to think someone with a chisel pounding away for too long before noticing the accidental indentation they were making.
A Prehistoric Sphinx…
The Sphinx is believed to have been ordered to be carved in 2600 BCE, Fourth Dynasty, by the Pharaoh Khafre even though there are no Egyptian records that state this. In fact, according to Pliny the Elder, a Roman Philosopher, once stated that the first century Egyptians “passed over it in silence.” In other words, it was already there when the Egyptians, as we know them, arrived.
The word Sphinx itself is actually Greek meaning to “strangle” or ‘bind tight”, we have no idea what the early Egyptians actually called it. Some link it to the Egyptian phrase “shesep-ank” which means “living image”. The Sphinx was carved out of the bedrock limestone permeating the Giza Plateau. Only the head and uppermost portions lie above the surface of the plateau.
John Anthony West and Dr. Robert M. Schoch were the ones to bring forth the water erosion observation. It is believed that the Sphinx was created in two stages and even had gone through repair during ancient times. It is believed the excess limestone was used to build the surrounding temples, meaning they would have to be the same age as well. Where the Valley Temples walls have been stripped of outer granite facings, an uneven surface emerges. It appears to have suffered from weathering damage and had gone through repairs, much like the Sphinx. Four types of weathering damage are exhibited: rainwater, wind, flaking and disintegration/dissolution. This water erosion damage is only visible on the oldest structures, as seen with the Sphinx.
The earliest repair on the Sphinx has what appears to be an Old Kingdom style masonry technique. This would suggest that the Sphinx was built before Dynastic Egypt and presumably well before due to the fact that the weather damage would have needed more than a few hundred years to develop.
With the help of Seismic Refraction, geologically charting something through the use of sound waves, we have a new estimate of how old the Sphinx is. Once rock is cut and exposed to the atmosphere it begins to weather, the depth of the weathering in the rock will show how long ago it was cut.
Studying the Sphinx shows different levels of weathering, adding to the theory that it was craved in two separate stages, with the back being exposed at a date after the front and sides. Since the front and sides show weathering 50 to 100 percent deeper that would place the front at 2500 to 5000 years earlier then the back. It is presumed to be from the downfall of rain because the top layers have eroded more then at the foundation. If the erosion was from steady floods the level of erosion would grow from the foundation up. Considering the type of rock, the depth of the water erosion, the known history of the weather in Northern Africa and the rate it would take rainfall to eat away at the stone, it would place the Sphinx as have been created between 33,500 BCE and 21,750 BCE.
Nile Valley History…
It is believed as the North African climate got more arid; tribes migrated to the NileValley for easy access to water. After several hundred or maybe a thousand years enough people were there to declare it a civilization. From there a northern and southern civilization developed. Around 3000 BCE the two merged under the rule of Narmer (or Menes possibly). For the next 500 years, Egypt developed and made monuments in the name of their God.
A couple of odd things archaeologist found at various sites were stone bowls where the lining is fashioned down to a millimeter in thickness and some items with obvious copper saw marks. Saw teeth and needles have been found as well.
There is no evidence of what tools were used to make the pyramids, as well as no tools. The only historic record of Egypt comes from “Notes on Egypt” by Manetho. Only problem is there is no original copy of his writings just what was translated by later Roman Historians. Also the names and dates between the various historians translations differ, quiet drastically in some places. Even with that being said Manetho never stated anything about who built the pyramids or why.
Four things are evident with the pyramids:
1. The scale of construction was colossal.
2. Limestone and granite are some of the most difficult building materials to handle, even by today’s standards.
3. The manner in which they were built were incredibly precise, especially considering there is rough 2 million blocks used all together.
4. Machine tool marks do exist on a number of artifacts. Many have assumed, as well as the most favored Egyptologist Sir Williams Flinders Petrie, that the most logical method to cut the granite would have been diamonds but they are not indigenous to Egypt.
Petrie and expert machinist & precision manufacturing executive Christopher Dunn did extensive research, albeit 100 years apart, and both came to the conclusion that some type of advance tools and manufacturing processes had to have been used to build the boxes and monuments in Egypt. The amount of precision, flat surfaces and perfect squares are theoretically impossible to do with the hand tools modern academia imply.
All types of tools leave marks of its work. Hand chisels, hammers, everything. Christopher Dunn believes he found evidence of power tools from the mistakes made on some basalt stones that were exposed after ancient looting. One stone in particular looks like someone with a saw started cutting, realized the cut was to short and tried two more times before finding the desired depth. The stone was placed in the middle of the walk way unexposed, besides its top, as to not show the mistake. Other mistakes show straight and even grooves or channels biting their way through stone, once again this could not be accomplished by hand. Their conclusion is it appears that the stones were mass produced and then when necessary further customized and shaped by hands. So simple and some type of sophisticated tools had to have been used in the construction of the Giza Plateau.
The Key to Modern Machinery…
Abu Rawash is seldom visited by tourist. It has an unfinished pyramid, but also a stone which may be key to explaining how they cut stones. It is of a concave shape and exhibits grooves .05 inches wide.
5 facts are of great interest with this stone:
1. Whatever cut this did so with relative ease, because the granite is smooth and flat.
2. The tool left an abrupt line where it ended, leaving it very easy to make out where the smooth and rough portions of the stone meet.
3. Whatever cut it left it concave in its width.
4. There is two slice marks, or steps, on the stones smooth surface.
5. There are machinists feed lines on the smooth part of the stone along the length of the stone.
It is theorized that it must be waste material from a separate cut. When compared to a piece of granite purchased today, the unpolished sides exhibit the exact same feed lines from modern machine cuts.
In the city of Memphis, the former capital, many large statues are found including one of Rameses so large it had to be laid on its back and sheltered in a two story building. What’s extraordinary about these statues is there craved from single pieces of granite. So a single piece, 40 to 70 feet tall had to be quarried, transported, craved and then erected. A task that would be difficult by today’s standards. To put it in modern terms nearly every statue is on the scale of a modern day Mount Rushmore.
A Pyramid of Assumptions…
The statement that the pyramids were tombs is an assumption. There is no evidence stating that is what the pyramids are for. Egyptologist normally assign pyramids to a king due to tombs in nearby cemeteries. It is perceived that king’s servants were buried by their master. The only pyramid with the name of a builder on it is the Great Pyramid, but even it may have been an forge by Richard Howard-Vyse, trying to out do his competition.
From an economical point of view, by today’s standards, the 5.9 million tons of limestone needed, workers and projected 10 years of work would cost $380 billion to build the Great Pyramid. That makes you wonder if all the time and money it would take to build would facilitate the need of making a tomb.
They were also great mathematicians as they understood and used a decimal system, the geometrical calculations of rectangles and circles as well as the surface of a hemisphere, the 3:4:5 right triangle Pythagorean Theorem as well as the practice of pi.
The academic theory of the order of pyramids built is inconsistent. Most importantly how was the Great Pyramid of “The 4th Dynasty” built in a way that a playing card can’t be slide between two rocks but every pyramid afterwards was so horribly built in comparison that they are severally deteriorated today. Also the Great Pyramid has no Egyptian interior design what so ever. By definition the volume of the ramp needed to bring granite stones of such mass would have been as enormous of a project as building the pyramids. Also, where did the material from the ramp go if that was the method?
Besides the $380 billion it would take to make the Great Pyramid it would take a modern day construction team 27 years to construct and that’s with three shifts running daily.
The other thing that blurs the theory is how the use of granite significantly reduced over the years even though its abundance never shrunk and the tools got more advanced according to academics. The more logical theory is that the pyramids were already there when the predynastic people arrived by the Nile. Since the pyramids were sealed the people assumed they were tombs.
Geodetics and Modern Knowledge…
It is believed the inventors of the pyramids had an understanding of geodetics. If so they would have to have a grasp on astronomy, geography and the geodetic skill to accurately measure the meridian degree. It is then perceived that Ancient Egyptians knew the measurements of the Earth, the Earth’s circumference, and based units of linear measurements upon it. If Edme-Francois Jomard, a member of Napoleon’s scientists who originally stated this, is correct then the Greek linear scale isn’t Greek at all. It’s Egyptian.
While researching burial sites from predynastic/early dynastic vs. burials from around the Fourth dynasty on, it appears that there are two separate races involved in the history of Egypt. Predynastic burials were found with the deceased laid out in a contracted, fetal position. The skeletal types differed as well as they had been found with narrow skulls and height measurements exceeding the breadth, common within Native Africans.
The people from the dynastic era performed burials with the body in an extended position. They also had broader skulls, while still exceeding that of the predynastic race, was still less than the breadth. The theory is that two different races, over time, occupied this area and then eventually came together as one. The predynastic race was dolichocephalic (long headed) but by the Third dynasty became mesocephalic (round headed). Examining all three measurements (length, breadth & height) the result over the centuries of progress show, according to Egyptologist Douglas Derry that, “under no circumstances could they be considered the same race”.
According to the Turin Papyrus kings list, the Shemsu-Hor ruled for 13,420 years before the First Dynasty and before them the Gods ruled for 23,200 years. With that timeline, it is suggested the pyramids could have been constructed by the Gods between 39,000 BCE and 16,000 BCE.
For whatever reason modern day Egyptologist will not recognize the Egyptians own telling of their history. Imagine in a post-apocalyptic future if people looked back on American History books and stated that George Washington could not have been the first President of the United States because they had no physical evidence man was intelligent at that point in time. Instead Jimmy Carter had to be the first President of the United States and everything before that was fables and myths.
In part two of this blog/book review we will take a look at the complex nature of the Pyramid, a scientific look into the myth of Hathor and how this may all point to a cataclysmic event in Earth’s history that we are not acknowledging…